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Showing content with the highest reputation since 08/17/18 in all areas

  1. 4 points
    Moin. YouTube has supported hashtags for a while now, but only recently they've also added the hashtags above the title. In other words, now is the time to start using them. But how? Hashtags effectively are a less abuseable and more useful version of regular tags: You can get the first 3 you place in your description above the title, and you can have up to 15 in total. Hashtags can be searched for, the SERP shows 3 "top results" and then the latest videos with the hashtag. If you have more than 15 hashtags, your video won't show up on the hashtag results. As such, one of the prime usages for hashtags are events that have a agreed-upon hashtag: While the event is happening, people may be searching for that hashtag precisely, and regardless if you are large or small, you'll show up on the first page for the particular hashtag - for some time, at least. This means that if you want to get found via hashtags, the publish time absolutely matters: You want to publish your video just before the largest portion of audience target audience is going to start searching for the hashtag. Another usage is basically a more "trendy" form of the online newspaper subheadings. Where the newspaper would do something like: "Drug Epidemic in America: An Overdose of Greed", on YouTube, you can title your video "An overdose of greed" and have #drug #epidemic #america as hashtags in the description. Note that your hashtags can be anywhere in the description and still show up above the title, so you don't need to place them in the important lines (ie the 3 lines that show up above the fold), and also note that the hashtags will not show up in search results/recommendations. So you may need to repeat your hashtags in the thumbnail (though not necessarily with the # sign). One thing you should be aware of is that marking a single sponsored link in the description as #ad will mark your entire video as #ad (if it's far enough up anyways). If you don't want that to happen on your video, use a different mark instead. I personally like doing * and ** next to the links and then doing a "* denotes sponsored link, ** denotes affiliate links" further down. But keep in mind that the rules how to mark sponsored content are not set by me or by YouTube, but by national regulators. If in doubt, ask them. You can set hashtags in titles, but that's typically not worthwhile. Hashtags are always blue, so if you put one in the title, there will be a huge blue #thing screaming "click me" right in the title. Having hashtags in the description will place much smaller hashtags above the title, in a size more similar to the "published on <date>" line below the channel name. Hashtags vs regular tags With YouTube gradually reducing visibility of tags over the past years and increasing visibility of hashtags, the direction YouTube is headed is clear: You aren't supposed to care about tags anymore. Tags already have little to no effect on your SEO performance, and YouTube recommend to not spend more than a minute or two on tags as they only are used for a brief period of time when YouTube still is figuring out what the video is about based on title, video, captions and description. I personally expect YouTube to first move tags to the "advanced settings" tab in your video settings and eventually removing them altogether, together with the video categories, and hashtags becoming a core part of their upcoming "explore" functionality. If YouTubers don't abuse the hashtags as much, that is.
  2. 3 points
    Moin. This article is to explain some common reasons behind the messages that YouTube gives you when rejecting your monetization application. See also: A list of YouTube policies and guidelines Note: posting why you got rejected in this thread will only serve as examples for other people as to what gets rejected, I won't be able to help you restore monetization. How to find the reason? You can find a general reason by going to your monetization page. Details on each reason can be found below. Reused content (or Duplication) If your channel is disabled for monetization because of duplication, it means that some of your content is identical with some other content on YouTube. This happens for example if you upload public domain footage royalty-free music videos other people made (reuploads) compilations anything that got claimed by ContentID reading outs of stories posted on other websites recordings of live concerts, DVDs, TV shows, and other copyright infringing activity unedited, uncommentated gameplay videos* While you may have the necessary rights to upload the video, AdSense has an "imperative of originality", making channels largely based around duplicate content ineligible for monetization. For more examples see the Content Quality Guidelines. To clarify, using third party footage in videos is still allowed for monetization (if all the licenses are in place), however, having a channel that has a focus on the third party footage (eg a music promotion channel or a compilation channel) is not. * "Videos simply showing a user playing a video game or the use of software for extended periods of time may not be accepted for monetization." says https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/138161?hl=en. So this content getting rejected from monetization is expected, the category it is listed in may be unexpected though. How to fix this? In order to get your channel eligible for monetization again, you need to remove all duplicate content. If all your content is duplicate content, you may want to look at alternative monetization models such as Patreon or merchandise instead as deleting all your videos probably isn't going to be worth it (especially considering that you'd drop to 0 watch hours again without any videos). For uncommentated gameplay content, you may want to do other kinds of gameplay videos, for example heavily edited videos, machinimas, reviews or commentated walkthroughs. You can reapply after 30 days. Impersonation ? If your channel is disabled for monetization because of impersonation, it means that your channel is confusingly similar to another channel, so for example: same avatar same name same channel banner same thumbnails same videos same video titles How to fix this? Change the points mentioned above to something different. You can reapply after 30 days. View count spam ? If your channel is disabled for monetization because of view count spam, it means that you have been using means to illegitimately obtain views. For example: View bots Purchasing views from websites promising "real views" Having your own videos running for extended periods of time in the background Participating in exchanges (sub4sub, view4view) Incentivizing people to watch your videos How to fix this? Stop using the above methods to get views. You can reapply after 30 days. Video spam ? If your channel is disabled for monetization because of video spam, it means that you have uploaded many overly similar videos, for example: "Learn how to count with soccer balls", "Learn how to count with elephants", "... with tires", lipsticks, bees, soda bottles, trains, and so on. In other words, if a viewer could accurately predict how most of your videos will look like after just watching one or two of them, you likely are going to get not approved. It may also mean that you have uploaded other content that typically is classified as spam, ie large amounts of untargeted, repetitive and otherwise unwanted videos. How to fix this? Instead of uploading videos that are mostly based around the same idea and iterate through details, make unique videos. Misleading Thumbnails ? If your channel is disabled for monetization because of misleading thumbnails, it means that your thumbnails did not represent the contents of your video. How to fix this? Your thumbnail should represent what your video is about. So the easiest way to not go wrong on this is to screenshot a specific frame of your video and use that as thumbnail. You may want to take at the Creator Academy lesson on making good thumbnails: https://creatoracademy.youtube.com/page/lesson/thumbnails You can reapply after 30 days. Other Reasons ? There may be other reasons that I'm not aware of at the time of writing. If you got rejected for a different reason (as in: something that is neither duplicate content, impersonation, view count spam, video spam nor misleading thumbnails), please let me know in the comments! The below happens only if you already have been monetizing already and now monetization disabled Repeated submission of ineligible videos and/or insufficient documentation ? If your channel is disabled for monetization because of repeated submission of ineligible videos and/or insufficient documentation, it means that Videos you submitted for monetization got claimed by a right holder When asked for documentation of commercial use rights, you didn't send sufficient documentation proving you have said rights Videos you submitted for monetization repeatedly were confirmed to be not advertiser-friendly by reviewers How to fix this? There is no fix. You have shown to YouTube repeatedly that you aren't a reliable business partner, and they no longer want to conduct business with you. Invalid Click Activity ? AdSense has a quite extensive help article on this topic themselves: https://support.google.com/adsense/answer/57153?hl=en TL;DR: Invalid click activity happens if people click on your ads with the intention to generate money for you, rather than because they're interested in the ads. It's up to you as an AdSense partner to report any suspicious activity to AdSense, and to try to not direct any bad traffic (like view-/clickbots) to your channel. How to fix this? If you get your monetization disabled for invalid click activity initially, you'll have to wait for 30 days for your AdSense account to come back – sometimes. In other times or severe cases your AdSense account will be disabled permanently. You can appeal (see the help page linked above), but you'll have to come with a good explanation on why the click activity was valid (eg: "this video suddenly got viral in a certain country and got featured all over the news" if that's why your video got a lot of views in a short time). An appeal that is saying basically "I didn't do anything" is unlikely to help you (because you not monitoring your traffic is the very issue here). As a final note, if this happens to you while you're partnered with an MCN, you'll have to work with them to get your AdSense account reinstated.
  3. 3 points
    Moin. There is an update on the matter by YouTube: Announcement: https://productforums.google.com/forum/#!topic/youtube/Uxfdrq_tAlM Help Article: https://support.google.com/youtube/answer/1311392#cqg Both go into more detail on what's considered duplication by YouTube.
  4. 3 points
    Hello, my name is Megaparsec and I'm here to share with you some tips and tricks about audio engineering and sound quality I learned when I was a voice actor. Have fun! ^^ 1. Microphones- You'll hear lots of people recommending Blue Yetis and Blue Snowballs. I, personally, have heard people recommend them all over youtube and the gaming community. While they do work well for a USB microphone (a microphone that plugs in directly to your computer rather than plugging into something called an audio interface), I would not buy a Blue Yeti/Snowball. You can get microphones that do the exact same thing- even ones that function better, for a much cheaper price. The only Voice Actors I've ever honestly heard use either of them were beginners, and didn't know any better. Blue Yeti price: $130 Samson C01U price: discontinued, but I've seen them go for $40-70 CAD Audio U1 price: $25 HOWEVER, if you want to go FURTHER UP in quality, I'd recommend getting an XLR Microphone. These microphones do not plug into your computer- they plug into an interface that then plugs into your computer. This dramatically increases quality by letting you tamper with the audio input directly. This is usually more expensive, but I'd 100% recommend them for singers, musicians, or voice actors- or gamers who just really like good sound. I use a Behringer U-Phoria interface, which I bought for $30, and a Shure SM48, which I bought for $40. Keep in mind that sometimes the interface doesn't come with a cord- but usually those can be bought for under $10 unless you want a super long wire. Keep in mind that your headphones won't work on your computer unless they're plugged into the interface- once the interface is hooked up, that becomes your computer's sound. 2. Programs- Audacity and reaper 100%. Both are free programs that can be used to record sounds (and the latter can be used to work with MIDI files), and while the latter is more complicated, it works phenomenally once you learn how to use it. I have more experience with audacity, and while it's a little bad with multiple tracks, you shouldn't need too many unless you have really intense audio requirements- and in that case, why are you using Audacity? 3. Miscellaneous Tips- Speak into your microphone at an angle- that way, less saliva flies into the mic, and harsher syllables aren't read as intensely. Should the above not work for you, invest in a pop filter- they're usually ~$5 and can increase audio quality by reducing the harshness of plosives. Some microphones have pop filters built in. Turn your microphone gain relatively low. Then, turn the recorded track volume higher as needed in the audio editing program of your choice. This dramatically increases sound quality. Recording with a blanket over your head (or perhaps in a closet) can reduce echo and reverberation. Remember, what's best for me might not work best for you- always read customer reviews before making a purchase.
  5. 2 points
    @Leo Wattenberg, does deleting duplicate videos include deleting unlisted videos, and those in draft form? @What You Haven't Seen, has there been any update on the status of your channel? Did deleting the drafts of the duplicate videos work? If it did, this could solve the problems of some of the other people, such as Keltuc, below. @keltuc, depending on the answers of Leo and What You Haven't Seen, we may know what needs to be done. Maybe all the unlisted duplicate videos are what is affecting your channel. Though, I cannot tell if deleting them will fix your status, until @What You Haven't Seen or @Leo Wattenberg have some new information.
  6. 2 points
    Moin. It sometimes happens that you go into a store and see one pile of ridiculously cheap SD cards, even though all other SD cards next to it are about as expensive as you'd expect. Why is that? Well, the reason for that is simple: Speed. SD cards have an awful lot of different speed specifications as can be seen in this Wikipedia Table: And the speed matters: If you're filming in 1080p, you're probably filming somewhere between 20 MBit/s (2.5 MB/s) and 50 MBit/s (6.25 MB/s). If your card has a lower write speed than your video bitrate, you won't be able to film. Further, note that video typically gets recorded with a variable bitrate (VBR), meaning that on average, your bitrate will be around a certain number and that errors may happen when attempting to write, reducing the effective write speed. So, long story short: If you at all have the means to do so, always get an SD card that says any one of the following on it: If recording 1080p30: C10/U1/V10/A1 If recording 1080p60 or 4K: U3/V30 But wait, there's more! So far, we've been discussing write speeds. While write speed definitely is the more important metric, read speed makes using the cards more pleasant. You don't want to wait for 4 hours to copy the contents of your 16GB SD card to your computer after all, do you? The read speed of SD cards typically is better advertised than the write speed, simply because it's always higher. But even here there are some differences that are specified and found on the card itself: UHS-I (represented on the card simply as roman numeral I) has a bus that can transfer between up to 50 MB/s and up to 104 MB/s UHS-II (represented as II) can transfer between up to 156 and 312 MB/s UHS-III (represented as III) can transfer between up to 312 and 624 MB/s PCIe 3.0/NVMe (represented as EXPRESS) can transfer up to 985 MB/s. To achieve these speeds, you will an SD card with a high read speed and an appropriate bus, an SD-card reader that can handle the UHS bus as well as the higher bus clock speed of UHS-II and III, a hard drive that can write at those speeds, and, if you're using an USB SD-card reader, a USB cable and port that can handle those speeds. In other words, when reading the contents of an SD card, pretty much every part of your PC can be the bottleneck with higher-performing SD cards. Lastly, to talk a bit about the capacity anyways: SD cards come in the version SD (up to 2GB), SDHC (up to 32 GB), SDXC (up to 2TB) and now SDUC (up to 128TB). While these cards all fit into the same cameras and readers, note that this doesn't mean that all cameras and readers can handle them, especially the newer formats XC and UC. So, before buying a newer SD card, check whether your equipment is compatible with the newer SD versions.
  7. 1 point
    Moin. When making educational videos, things rarely are simple enough to be fit into a video. Instead, the real world (or even digital worlds!) tend to have a lot of exceptions to rules, little details that may or may not be important, and countless of associated things you can mention. So if you aren't careful, a simple video intended to show a single thing ("how to tie your shoelaces") may end up becoming rather complex and convoluted (different methods of tying knots, shoelace patterns, some shoes don't have shoelaces, what to do with different shoelace lengths and slipperinesses, etc.). And here's where you aren't your audience: After researching a topic for a long time, you rightfully can consider yourself at least half an expert on the topic. So the obvious idea to go to is to make The Definitive Video on the topic. A video showing all shoelace patterns, all shoelace knots, all shoelace lengths and slipperinesses, and a list of exceptions to the aforementioned. If it's too long, you may even split it up into a little series, The Definite Shoelace Playlist. However, this is not what your audience wants to see. The Definite Video on a topic is usually only useful for people who are looking to become an expert on the topic themselves, or for you if you want to show off how much you know on it. So it's basically just a knowledge dump for you. But it's not useful for someone just wanting to learn the basics. In the case of shoelace tutorials, the audience wants to see a step-by-step guide on how to tie their shoes. This means that you should show them one method of tying shoelaces, and only one. The easiest one, if such thing exists. However, simplifying the topic down to the basics means that you may have to swallow your ego and not show everything there is to know. This is a thing that I have trouble with myself, check out for example this post: The message I wanted to convey here is that you have to pay attention to the write speed of your SD card. But when researching the topic, I also found out that there are various UHS buses, so I included that info as well. This post now is closer to The Definitive Topic than I'd like, but I'll keep it like that for demonstration purposes. You could end that post before the "but wait, there's more" line, that would make very little difference. Further, a thing I did cut out from that text after reviewing it: The highlighted information is technically correct, and possibly even funny, but it adds a layer of unnecessary information. Explaining the technical details of how it would go wrong is simply not relevant to the question "what SD card do I need when filming?". One way to prevent Definitive Videos or Knowledge Dumps is to try defining a message you want to convey before you start writing the script of the video, and try wrapping it in a story. This has the benefit that a defined message tends to be rather simple, and a story tends to be rather linear with a clear start and finish. This stops you from going too far onto side branches and unnecessary details, because you want your story to progress. So, in TL;DR: What you like from educational content isn't necessarily what your audience likes Simplify as much as possible when teaching, don't just dump your knowledge Define a message and convey it inside a story, This post was inspired by "The Storyteller's Sacrifice" by kliksphillip.
  8. 1 point
  9. 1 point
    Moin. So, you have successfully streamed some content. You likely now have a some hour-long recording/VOD of it awkwardly sitting on your channel, perhaps in-between other forms of content. These recordings are however quite unpolished, and there's a lot you can do to make them shine! Live streams have a start-up time. Typically, the first minute of a stream is dedicated to figuring out whether technology works as intended, and then another five to ten minutes are spend on just greeting viewers joining. Having content like that is good during the live part of the stream; you're providing special attention to your most dedicated viewers. However, on a stream recording, this is rather dull to watch as the viewer cannot interact with the recording. To fix this, you can set a clear break point between the greeting and the start of the actual content, so that these first couple minutes in which nothing is happening can just be cut away. Live streams are long. Usually, anyways. Because of that, watching through an entire recording is a huge commitment and unlike a feature-length movie, the entertainment value isn't particularly high as the one defining feature of the live stream – being able to interact with the streamer – is gone on the recording. Because of that, very few people actually watch those recordings. To fix this, both the length and the entertainment value, that is, you can either compile highlights from the recording resulting in many short videos with just a few, memorable parts, or "unboring" it by cutting out the most boring bits (startup time, setup time between segments, backtracking/redoing attempts, silence, etc.), but keeping the live-streamy nature of it intact. Live streams are segmented. Apart from aforementioned startup time, live streams tend to be dividable into different segments. What these segments are in particular changes from stream to stream, maybe it's discussion of a certain topic, gameplay of a certain game or just a single round within a game. Locating a segment within an hours-long recording is as annoying as having to fast forward or rewind a cassette to the correct position in order to hear a single song each time you want to hear that song. To fix this, you can upload segments as stand-alone. The clearer the cut between individual segments, the easier it is for a viewer stumbling upon the segment to understand what the recording is about, even with the context of the previous content missing. Live stream metadata are different from VOD metadata. For livestreams, you primarily get found via directories of some sort (game pages, for example), or by people already following your channel knowing that you are streaming. So, during the live bit of the stream, you don't really need SEO, instead, you need clickbait a thumbnail/title combination that makes people want to click on your content, and because live content by definition is always new, you can keep reusing the same title/thumbnail combination that works (provided that whatever you're doing in the stream still fits). Further, the description doesn't need to describe your live content (it can't, really), so instead you can use it for CTAs, or stuff you want your viewers to click on (tipjar/donation links). To fix this for recordings, you can remake the title/thumbnail/description of each video to a thing that actually makes more sense on a recording: Something telling the viewer what they can expect in the video. These techniques can be used together, if necessary (redoing the metadata almost always is necessary). The more you edit your recording to make a regular video, the more watchable your recording will become – however, this also means that you'll spend more time microoptimizing your content instead of making new content. And there definitely is a point at which the cost of editing a recording outweights the benefit of having a heavily edited video. That said, if you are a streamer, you definitely should consider doing the following with your recordings: Make regular highlight videos. You need some content to convince people who stumble across your channel while you aren't streaming that your channel is worth subscribing to. This will vastly expand the audience you can possibly reach; if you stream prime time in the US, you'll be effectively invisible to Europeans. Highlight VODs can be watched anywhere, anytime. Think about how many of your stream recordings should be public, and for how long. Streaming daily is quite doable, but if you treat all raw recordings that come of it as first-class citizens of your channel, videos that took more effort to produce will drown out. Having your recordings unlisted, but put into a playlist will keep the videos available to people who really want to watch recordings, but free up your video tab. Compromises of this are possible, eg if you want the recordings to stay prominently available for a week before you upload a highlight video of them. Don't drown subscribers in VODs. This is especially an issue for channels that want to upload every single segment of their stream. Subscribers love you if you upload one video on a day. They like you if you upload two or three. But they will absolutely hate you if you upload ten, fifteen, twenty videos a day and then likely unsubscribe just to be able to use their subscription feed properly again. Offload some of your VOD work. Making recordings more watchable isn't exactly a high art, so basically anyone with a video editor and enough time can do it, and chances are that you have fans who would be willing to try their hand at it – just remember to pay them fairly. Even if this is a somewhat easy job, it's still a job, one that's repetitive and time-consuming at that.
  10. 1 point
    You will probably be rejected for 'duplication' as most of the content I could see is not yours.
  11. 1 point
  12. 1 point
    @Leo WattenbergThanks for this very informative post. I wanted to ask if the following three videos that I'm going to describe, are suitable to be monetized. 1.: an english translation of a scene / trailer where I'm using just a couple of screen shots of said trailer/scene 2.: an english translation of a summary of what is going to happen in the next episode with a couple of pictures that were posted on the official site of the series on instagram 3.: a "compilation" of instastories the actors posted while being on set none of those videos have any copyright notices, strikes or claims If the pictures are a problem in the videos where I translate stuff, could I still upload the translation without the pictures and use some copyright free pictures? I've already tweeted team youtube but I only got a copy paste answer. I would really appreciate if I could get a real answer to my question, because nobody could help me.
  13. 1 point
    @Eyedol Pro 아이돌 프로 if you don't have commercial use rights for the kpop stuff, then yes, that would be the issue.
  14. 1 point
    Moin. Live streaming in theory is the easiest kind of content to create: You hit the "Stream now" button and just wing it from there. But in practice, doing that will result in a rather unenjoyable stream. You can do better. A good stream has a plan to it, and there are two things you can plan for: The schedule and the content. As for the schedule, you should go live when your audience has time to watch. If your audience is school kids, you can reach them usually anytime between school's out and reasonably late evening, if your audience is adults, you can reach them usually between late afternoon and unreasonably late evening. Note that time zones exist, if you're living in Europe, but most of your audience is American, you may want to switch to more america-friendly times. If you're considering streaming professionally (towards full-time, that is), you may want to try to cover as much of the spare time of your audience as useful. "As useful" means that there are more considerations to than just that. For one, mental health is a thing; streaming all day every day for a year will likely burn you out. Even when streaming full time, you want to have at least one free day per week. For another, you may run out of content in the middle of a stream if the stream is too long. Planning content for a stream is almost a necessity. It allows you to deliver a constantly and consistently interesting stream. For example: If you're playing a game, try beating within the span of one stream. This will allow your stream to just take over the dramaturgical elements of the game you're playing, so you're building up towards the climax the entire stream and are able to end it right after. If the game is too long to beat in one go, try at least finishing the final stretch in one stream. Having to end the stream half an hour before the game ends is annoying for your audience. All of this of course requires you to inform yourself how the game is going to go. If you're doing something that doesn't really give you an overarching storyline, such as playing MOBAs or non-gaming, prepare some topics you'd like to talk about, preferably in a way that builds towards a climax again. Recognize what the natural breakpoints are in your content (you can use them for pee-breaks or to start wrapping up the stream). Recognize how long you can be entertaining. Being entertaining is exhausting, and after a while your audience will be able to tell that you no longer are giving your 100%. End the stream before your exhaustion becomes noticeable to the viewer. You may need to re-watch your previous streams to find out when this point is reached as it's hard to judge in the moment. There is a certain startup delay after starting the stream as people slowly join in to watch. During this startup time, you can have a countdown/idle screen, but I personally prefer having some sort of filler content instead, eg. some small casual game. It isn't always possible or even useful to have a stream follow a storyline leading to a climax. But in every case, you should have an explicit goal with your stream. This can be "I want to reach more people", "I want to connect with existing fans", or anything else you'd like. Having a goal allows you to work towards the goal, so for example, steps to "reach more people" can be "play popular games people care about" or "talk about recent and upcoming events", if you want to connect with your fans, you probably want to have more of a Q&A environment and not one where you need to intensely focus on a game. Schedule planning and content planning can conflict with each other. For example, if your schedule says you'll stream for 5 hours on a day, but you've reached your goal (eg playing through a game) already after 2.5 hours, you have to decide if you want to follow the content planning and end the stream right there and then, or if you want to follow the schedule planning and improvise for the second half of the stream. Resolving this conflict gets easier if you have backup content prepared, and even backup content for your backup content, so it should come to no surprise that most professional streamers stick to their schedule and go for the backup content. But if you didn't (or couldn't) plan for backup content and the only thing you had runs dry, don't be afraid to end your stream early. There is a saying in the showbiz attributed to P. T. Barnum "always leave them wanting more": It's better to end too early, than to drag your show for so long that people start getting bored and leave. With all that in mind, you should be able to answer these common streaming-related questions for yourself: How long should a stream be? How long can you be entertaining for on a regular basis? What are the ideal streaming times? When does your audience have time to watch your stream? (look at your analytics) What should I stream? What brings you closer to your goal? (What is your goal?) How often should I stream? How much can you sustain and still have spare time?
  15. 1 point
    Moin. If you're running a channel, there are, somewhat abstractly speaking, three kinds of content you can create: Help content, which is content designed to be found via search. This content typically doesn't drive any meaningful amount of subscribers as people will watch your video to get a certain piece of information and then typically no longer care about you. This content gives you constant views over long periods of time. Hub content, which is content designed to get people to return to your channel. This is probably the most important content you can create for your channel as this is what gets you subscribers. This content gives you a lot of views shortly after upload. Hero content, which is content designed around a certain event. This content uses tentpole programming to make videos that are hyping the viewers up for a certain event, once the event is over, this content doesn't see any videos anymore for a while. This typically is a lot of work and rarely employed by YouTubers and is more relevant for brands. This content gives you a fuckton of views for a very limited amout of time. Your channel doesn't need to use all of these strategies, you can come by just fine with using one. But if you are looking towards certain goals (eg. 1000 subscribers and 4000 watch hours in the past 12 months), choosing the right content strategy can help you a lot. In the following, I'll go a bit over what to look out for when using these content strategies. Help content Help content gets people to your video via search mostly. As such, SEO is more important than usual here: You may want to be found via a broad spectrum of search terms, so you'll need to find a way to incorporate a broad spectrum of keywords into your content (most likely description). Note that you can't just put "keyword 1, keyword 2, keyword 3" in the description; YouTube may ignore such blatant attempts at gaming the algorithm and/or may give you a strike for doing so. Another thing to keep in mind is that you probably won't be the only search result and that your viewers don't know you. So, starting a video with "hey guys and welcome back to..." is probably the worst thing you can do with this kind of content. You want to give your viewers the impression that you're doing exactly the kind of video they were searching for, without any sort of padding at the beginning. An example for help content is - obviously - Tutorials. For tutorials, make sure that your video can be followed step by step as viewers may pause your video to do whatever you're doing at home and may need more time for it. In other words, don't have a video structure that's 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 3b, 6, 7. Hub content Hub content gets people to subscribe to you and keeps subscribers happy. Note though that both things - getting new subscribers and keeping subscribers happy - should be done in different formats. A format is some sort of series with recurring elements. An example for a format to keep your existing subscribers happy is the "reacting to your comments" format or "behind the scenes" formats, a format to get new subscribers can be a "here I am doing something impressive" kind of thing. Naturally, formats that are designed to reach new subscribers should follow some of the rules for help content - good SEO, little padding at the beginning and such - while formats designed to keep your audience happy in theory can be named "channel_reacts_4.webm" without much performance loss. Note that hub content is there to keep people coming back, so these formats have to be recurring on a regular basis: Being consistent in both content and schedule is rather important. If someone subscribes for impressive things, they want to see more impressive things; it takes a while to convert them from simply being there for the impressive things to being there because they like you as a person. Note that in order to make people care about you, you should have your format appear at least on a weekly basis, as everything else may cause people to forget why they subscribed to you in the first place. Unless you want to make hero content, but more on that further down. Formats are a thing you can experiment with: Launch new ones, see how well they are received, make more of them if people like them, or stop making them if people don't care about them anymore. To maximize your success with new formats, try to understand who your audience is: How old are they, which gender do they have, where do they live, and so on. You can find this information in your Analytics, namely in the Demographics and Geography reports. Most importantly, and this isn't something you can simply read out, try to understand why people like your formats and try developing new formats that have some elements that work while also being overall very different. If you do it right, you can make vastly different formats and properly diversify, while still keeping most of your subscribers watching every video (or at least not getting annoyed by the formats they don't like). Overall, for most intents and purposes, hub content should be the core of your channel. Hero content So, hero content is very different from the other two. It helps you get views and subscribers alike, but doesn't really care about SEO and also doesn't care about being consistent. Instead, it relies on hype, shareability and big events. These events are traditionally sport events like the world cup or superbowl, and you'll find advertisers releasing content regarding the event leading up to it, climaxing in the event itself and then either completely stopping or trying to keep people around with hub content. Hero content requires a lot of commitment and a "massive orchestration". For example, if you just say out of the blue: "there will be a boxing match between me and this other guy", maybe your and the other guy's fans will be happy with that content, but you won't get people to talk about it. If you however prefix this boxing match by several weeks or months of your channel and the other channel "beefing", "exposing" or insulting each other, suddenly your little collaboration becomes a huge event, maybe even large enough to warrant dragging your friends and family into it, forming teams, and selling tickets to a stadium. And at the end of the day, this benefits all involved: Your fans will have seen you slap your "enemy" in the face, your haters will have given you views and money to see your "enemy" slap you in the face, you'll still have most of the benefits of normal collaborations in that an audience following an entirely different creator now knows about you, and if you orchestrate it to end in a draw, you even get to do another hero event later on. Note that hero content only works because it's extraordinarily special. Unlike hub content which you ideally want to have on a weekly basis, hero content requires a lot of cooldown between the events, so that hype can develop again. Traditionally, this means you can do a recurring hero event once a year (superbowl), or even less often (world cup). However, you can tentpole towards different events, so for example, you may have a big hero series in the summer regarding all sorts of summery things, and another one in winter regarding all sorts of wintery things. But, again: Hero content requires a lot of work and is better suited if you have a media company at your disposal. https://creatoracademy.youtube.com/page/lesson/hero-hub-help https://creatoracademy.youtube.com/page/lesson/assess-content
  16. 1 point
    Moin. You may have followed my guide to becoming a YouTuber, and now are in a position where it seems like you have everything down, yet people still don't watch your stuff. So how do you attract people to your channel? Show your friends and family your videos. It may feel awkward, but only this group will watch your videos simply because they like you. Everyone else you'll have to convince with interesting topics and quality. Promote your content. This is a double-edged sword; while effective promotion can expose you to a lot of potential new subscribers, there are a lot of places where you'll just waste time and money. There may be forums covering the same topic your video is about where you can share your video effectively. Note: Don't just come in, post your link and leave. Try to understand the dynamics and rules of the forum before posting, many forums don't really want to see certain video content, especially in gaming where making Let's Play/walkthrough/funny moment videos is trivial. Avoid any place that is aimed at creators. If it says anything about "self-promotion", "creators" or "YouTubers", your audience, viewers, are unlikely to be found there. Posting your video to these places is a waste of time at best. Buy ads. Note: If you're running a video ad, don't just use a regular video of yours as that would just result in a bunch of views with 0 interaction and 0 new subscribers. Ads need a clear call to action. The targeting in ad software can be quite tricky and result in you spending a lot of money on an audience that really isn't interested in what you make. Befriend other YouTubers, aka "Hustle & Heart". This can be done by leaving thoughtful comments on their videos, subscribing to them and such. The difference between this and aforementioned self-promotion is that you don't say "check out my channel" in those comments, instead, you hope that the other YouTuber notices your comments and returns the favor without asking. Being upfront about that you're just doing this to get the channel may just poison this relationship from the start. Also, sub4sub, as well as posting the same message to a lot of people, can get your channel terminated, so don't do that either. I personally dislike this method as it feels manipulative and takes a lot of time – time you could invest into optimizing your channel instead. Speaking of which: Continue optimizing your channel. There almost certainly are more things you can improve on your channel; you may want to check out the checklist below. The more optimized the channel, the more likely it is your video will show up in search results, and then the viewers come on their own.
  17. 1 point
    I encountered this phenomen several times, and decided to follow my instincts: I do videos as I please and have fun with, and let unsubscribers go.
  18. 1 point
    Moin. One of the most difficult positions to be in as a creator is the "one-trick-pony" channel: A channel revolving around just a single topic, for example a single game or a single trend (think fidget spinner). For a while, this may be an ideal niche and you may be able to get huge success with it, but the success will live and die with the popularity of the topic. And once it starts dying, things tend to get dire for the channel, with seemingly nothing stopping the downward spiral and all experiments failing. I wish I could offer clear-cut advice here, but unfortunately, all I have are some considerations that you might want to take into account. Your audience may be collectively shifting interest to something different. If this is the case, you may be able to go with them. Your topic may be a subtopic to a more general topic and you may want to simply broaden your coverage. This may be obvious, but: Your topic may be a subtopic to multiple more general topics. Typically one is most obvious, but the obvious thing isn't what your audience is interested in. For example, if you're doing police role playing in GTA5, your viewers might be interested in GTA5 gameplay in general, but maybe they're even more interested in you interviewing real policemen. Your mental health is important: You may not be happy anymore running a one-trick-pony channel and slaving away doing one thing only, day in, day out. In that case, you should go on holiday and/or start producing different content (or stopping altogether) regardless of how much this hurts your success in online video. Or in the opposite case, you may be perfectly happy doing one kind of content that now happens to not be popular anymore. As long as you really are enjoying it and are getting value out of it even with fewer people watching, changing it up may not be necessary. You just need to be aware that you probably won't be able to do this full-time then. Starting a new channel makes things harder and easier at the same time. If you want to make a clear cut to your old content, making a new channel is the obvious choice. This has benefits and drawbacks however. On one hand, it makes it easier to see your success on the new channel; you are growing from a small channel, rather than stagnating with the big channel. On the other hand, you won't be able to reach nearly as many people on this new channel. Finding a new topic and format while staying on the old, big channel certainly would be the most ideal option, but also the hardest. The switch into the new direction doesn't need to be instantaneous. You can phase out the old format, slowly reducing the upload frequency while constantly promoting the new channel - if you decide to start a new channel, that is. Again: Breaking out of this position is difficult and requires a lot of thought, a lot of experimentation and a lot of throwbacks. But I hope that this here can at least help you a bit if you're stuck.
  19. 1 point
    Moin. I covered the basics of good sound before, so now I'll share some things that I've done in the past to make the audio sound better after recording. This is by no means applicable to every situation, and all could've been avoided with proper equipment, but if botching together a solution that makes the video sound better, so be it. Programs used ReaPlugs VSTs OBS Magix Vegas Pro 14 Noise removal (in OBS) Situation: I live next to a busy cobblestone street and my mic is quite near my laptop fans. I don't want my viewers to hear that too much. Solution: Stream at night if possible, if not: Have the ReaPlugs installed In OBS, go to the settings gear next to your recording device (Mic/Aux for me) select "Filters" click the plus in the bottom-left corner. Add a VST 2.x plugin and give it a name Don't select the noise suppression option. I mean, you can, but the more noise suppression you activate, the more it sounds like your microphone is laying in an aquarium. Select the reafir_standalone plugin and open the plugin interface Put it in subtract mode, click the "automatically build noise profile" option and be quiet for a bit. I usually wait until a car drives past. Then uncheck it. You now have audio that has the worst of the background noise removed. Warning: The louder the background noise, the worse your sound will be even if you apply this filter. But, it works good enough for me. Making far away dialogue better understandable (in Vegas) Situation: Was out to film a local comedian group (6 people), but only had a shotgun mic and my camera and had no time to set up properly, so I was in the back of the room full of people, some 10m away from the stage and trying to record what is said on stage. Solution: In Vegas, click the dot-rectangle-dot-icon next to the audio track (the Track-FX icon) Click on TrackEQ Select the Fletcher-Munson-curve preset Increasing the gain obviously also was involved, but this equalizer setting single-handedly increased the quality from "difficult to listen to and hard/near-impossible to understand" to "noticably bad quality, but not repulsive anymore". No more "RIP Headphone users" Situation: I'm usually somewhat quiet when talking, but sometimes become loud. Viewers who have turned up the volume to understand me better usually then suddenly get their ears blown out. Solution: Have ReaPlugs installed In OBS, follow steps 2-5 from the noise removal guide, in Vegas, open the plugin chain add ReaComp (reacomp-standalone) Drag the left-hand slider (the threshold) down until it's just below your normal talking volume enable classic attack and auto release set the ratio to somewhere between 2:1 and 4:1, depending on how much difference there is between your normal talking voice and your normal screaming voice (and how often you expect to scream) (optional) increase the (wet) output until your usual talking voice is somewhere around -12db. Don't go above this; the compressor needs some room to work with. Compressing the audio won't make your audio sound nicer, however, it will make it easier to listen to as it reduces the difference between loud and quiet parts. What settings do you use to make your audio sound better? Share it below!
  20. 1 point
    Your channel has quite a lot of issues and going over them individually would take forever, so I'll be a bit more general and go through the final steps of my "becoming a YouTuber" list instead: So: You say you want to diversify, and that's fine, but if you want people to care about you and your channel, you'll need to make video for an audience. Otherwise, people subscribing for one thing, eg your boat videos, will only get "spammed" by your "Reseller news" series and quickly unsubscribe again. So, let's say you want to reach people who sell stuff on Ebay and other platforms. Who do you think these people are? How old are they, do they have a lot of time or are they busy? Is selling stuff on Ebay changing so often that you need to upload daily, or is a weekly format enough? These are questions you should ask yourself, and then make decisions on what videos you'll produce based on that. You're talking about diversification, and that in general is a good thing, but diversification needs to happen in relation to your current audience if you're out for success. In other words, if you start with info on selling stuff on Ebay, that audience may also be interested in ebay horror stories about the most difficult customers they've had, or about selling stuff on Amazon, or about general economics, or about efficient warehouse keeping on a small-medium scale. That said, it is possible to have a personality-driven channel, where people don't really care about what you're saying or doing, but just love to see you do whatever. These channels however are structured very differently, usually around shallow entertainment and topics that everybody can get behind yet are still somewhat exciting. Your current videos just don't really offer that. For this, you'll need to have recurring formats on your channel. Looking at what other channels do - and more importantly, don't do yet - is also good to get success within a certain niche. Lastly, here is some further reading: https://creatoracademy.youtube.com/page/course/get-discovered?hl=en
  21. 1 point
    Moin. Fair Use is a thing that a lot of people say a lot of stuff about because it, in theory, gives you easy, cheap and uncomplicated access to high-quality content to implement into your video. Instead of trying to find the copyright owner and then trying to get broadcasting rights for it (worldwide? forever? that's gonna cost extra), you just download the thing and claim your use to be fair. The problem is, fair use is fuzzy, only exists in that form in the USA, and informing yourself about what it is and isn't is fairly difficult as everyone on the internet has an opinion on it without having proper qualification. Neither do I for that matter, I'm not a lawyer, but I spent the past half decade dealing with annoying copyright issues. But one thing at a time. 1. Fair Use is fuzzy. The often-quoted four factors of fair use are guidelines for judges and juries, not for creators. There are no hard guidelines that you can follow, and should your case go to court, the verdict can differ greatly from judge to judge and on whether a jury is involved. Case in point: Ray William Johnson v. Jukin Media. Ray William Johnson's equals-three show (=3) was a show in which he would collect a bunch of viral videos from the web and comment on them, parody some of it and generally try to do stuff he thought was entertaining. Jukin Media, which buys exclusive rights of viral videos, didn't like that and sued him in 2014. In 2015 the verdict was in, and the judge ruled that 18/19 videos were fair use. However, the case went on and in the next instance, in 2016, a jury ruled that 40/40 videos were not fair use. It ultimately didn't matter for the case as RWJ and Jukin settled the case before the verdict was spoken, but it does show how quickly things can turn. Even if you're certain that your use is fair and a judge agrees, the next judge (and especially jury) may not agree. 2. Fair use only exists in the US in that form. In other countries, the law simply may be different. For example, in the UK, there is a "fair dealing" law, which doesn't apply to everyone equally but rather has different requirements for private use, use as criticism, use as parody, and so on. As another example, in Germany, the "Freie Benutzung" law asks whether the original "verblasst" (~pales) in the new work. In other words, a video clearly being fair use may not help you if you're getting sued in not-the-USA. This is especially likely to happen if either you or the copyright holder lives outside the US. 3. Informing yourself about fair use is difficult. Not only does the law change every so often, is fuzzy and different from country to country, it also is fairly easy to look for information on the internet and find information that seems to validate an existing belief of yours. If you believe that putting a disclaimer up in your video is going to help with anything, you'll find plenty of places telling you it is, but that won't help you in event of a strike or lawsuit. A slightly more reliable place are the court dockets which show the judge's arguments in a fairly straight-forward language (though you need to be careful as they tend to throw in normal-looking words that mean very specific things in law-speech and not their use in common language), but, as we have seen, the judge's decision seldom is final, and the original documents tend to be rather difficult to find. A better way is to get someone who knows the stuff (ie a copyright lawyer) to look over your video, as well as the footage you're trying to use fairly, and let them make a call on whether that's a stupid idea. Often, a first and rough answer will be delivered free of charge. With that in mind, here a bit of personal preference: What would I do if I wanted to incorporate some fair use footage into my video? Don't. It'll save a lot of headaches by making videos 100% on your own. If it's necessary, try getting permission from the copyright holder. Often, the copyright holder is just happy that someone is paying attention to their content and will give permission for rather small uses. This is especially true for video games; a lot of game publishers have a thing somewhere on their website saying "you can use it in videos". If the copyright holder won't give me a permission, or wants me to pay sums I can't afford, I'll ask myself as well as a lawyer how likely it is that the video is under fair use (or rather Freie Benutzung in my case). If both me and my lawyer find the video to be fair use, I'd think about whether I care enough about the video to potentially fight through several instances of courts until I'd finally reach a conclusion, with these things sometimes taking up to a decade to resolve fully. If the video is more important to me than the potential time I'd spent on 4, I'd upload it. I am aware that the above is a result of a chilling effect: Don't exercise your rights, it's annoying. I am aware that in an ideal world, you'd skip point 1, 2 and 4 and just get someone competent to defend you and fight to the bitter end, accepting no settlement. But the time you'd have to spend on permission-getting, lawyer-asking and court-fighting could be much better spent on just being creative and making a different video that is yours, 100% yours and only yours.
  22. 1 point
    Moin. If you are doing some research on how to become a YouTuber, you'll quite quickly find a lot of information that leave you standing like a deer in headlights. Which inspired this post: A quick guide with the absolute basics you need to get started. Love being creative. Just like all other arts, a YouTube carrer demands that you love creativity. If you have trouble coming up with creative ideas, you may want to approach the topic from an "Let's see if I can make something creative" angle, rather than "I want to be successful quickly" one. Just Do It. If you have an idea for a video, execute it. There's no use in having the perfect plan if you never execute it. You don't need to buy any expensive equipment if you have a smartphone to be able to execute most things. Practice makes perfect. The first video you make will suck badly. Your second video probably will be slightly better, your third one even more, and so on. This however is only true if you look actively and self-critically at your videos, try to find any flaws and work out a plan to fix them next time. If you don't, it's easy to fall into a routine where you grind away video after video, not get anywhere, and blame other people ("Big YouTubers! Society!") or things ("The Algorithm!") for your lack of success - which also won't get you anywhere. Follow laws. In the creative process, it may occur that you do something illegal, possibly unaware of the legal situation and suddenly find yourself in a situation where you have to pay hefty fines, get strikes on YouTube or face other consequences. This entire thing is a complex topic which is covered a bit more in-depth here: The following is only relevant if you are out for success Define your audience. Who do you want to reach? Are the formats you have suitable to reach your audience? Pick the best formats. If you notice that a certain format or series of yours isn't as popular as your other stuff, don't be afraid to kill it. If you have a format that performs way better than your other stuff, perhaps consider making your other formats a bit more similar to the successful one. Check the market. Is someone else basically making your formats and saturating the market? Is there still a market niche you can fill? Is there a YouTuber with a similar audience to yours that you could collaborate with? What new innovations are there in the video industry, and how can you use them? These, and basically all other questions entrepreneurs have to ask themselves, are also valid for people who have "being a full-time YouTuber" as goal. This was part 1 on the topic. Part 2 can be found below.
  23. 1 point
    We are happy to introduce the next major feature that will be available for CreatorsHub members - Clubs. Clubs are a brand new way of supporting sub-communities. Many people have requested social group functionality and Clubs are our implementation of this concept. There's a lot to digest there! Let's go over the basic functionality. Club Types Four types of club are available: Public clubs Clubs that anyone can see and participate in without joining. Open club Clubs that anyone can see and join. Closed club Clubs that anyone can see in the directory, but joining must be approved by a Club Leader or Club Moderator. Non-club-members who view the club will only see the member list - not the recent activity or content areas. Private club Clubs that do not show in public, and users must be invited by a Club Leader or Club Moderator Club Users Each club has three levels of user: Leader A leader has all of the permissions of a moderator, and can add other moderators. They can also add content areas (see below). The club owner is automatically a leader. Moderators Moderators, as the name implies, have the ability to moderate content posted within the club. As the site administrator, you can define which moderator tools can be used. You could, for example, prevent any content being deleted from clubs, but allow it to be hidden. Moderators can also remove members from a club. Users Anyone else that joins the club. For closed clubs, there's an approval process. Users can request to join and the request must be approved by a leader. Leaders get a notification when a user requests to join; the user gets a notification when their request is approved or denied. Club Content Club Leaders can add a variety of content areas to their club - forums, calendars and so on. Each content area a leader adds can have a custom title, and will appear in the club navigation. This means, for example, that you can have multiple forums within a club, and give each a different name. Club Locations Clubs have built-in support for Google Maps, allowing you to specify a physical location for your club. The Club Owner specifies the location when setting up the club, and clubs are then shown on map on the directory page: And within a club, the location is shown too:
  24. 1 point
    Hi @LONI, welcome to the community. And thanks, its a accomplishment by everyone who is active here to make it what it is ?
  25. 1 point
    Hey all, I wanted to break down some points on thumbnails to make sure everyone has a little guide to building the best thumbnail you can build. Here are some tips to consider: Thumbnail Resolution Make your thumbnail 1280x720 (a 16:9 ratio) and always keep an eye on any updates via Youtube for resolution changes. Don't make heavy use of the bottom right corner as time code goes there. Thumbnail + Text As a great general rule, don't put text in your thumbnails unless it really commands text to be there or helps balance the shot. If you have to use text, make sure you keep it to 3-4 words to keep it less cluttered. Test at reduced size to make sure it's still readable. Good Use Cases with Text: Notice, if you reduce the image further you'll still read the text (although "Chimichangas" could get tough). Although, notice the "Handle It" logo in the bottom corner of the bacon thumbnail is overlayed by the time code--avoid this on your own content, never put stuff down in that corner. See also: Thumbnail Reduction / Size When editing your photo make sure you zoom them down to a very small size and spot check. Is it still readable, does it still "work" and convey the same message? Use Case: My cocktail thumbnail reduced in size still shows the cocktail and nice bright orange branding (but logo is diminished, but eye catching yellow still present) Note: I over-saturate my colors so that yellow in the cocktail really pops, it's a bit more yellow than "real life" on the shot, but not much. Draw the eye!! Avoid White Backgrounds When editing your photo, find a color that isn't white to represent your backdrop if you need to create a backdrop at all. Watch how a prior thumbnail looks smaller by comparison to its original above. Notice the text with a white background just looks "smaller" even though its really the same size as it was before--the effect of using the 'black box' background allowed it to stand out more and dominate its space. Color Selection Matters As a good general rule, use colors opposite each other on the color wheel. For instance, yellow & purple, green & red, blue & orange, pink & green, etc. Make sure the base color allows the accent colors to really "pop" to life and draw your eye. This also can add some emotional excitement to the thumbnail. Use Case, Pokemon works well on these Branding & Color You should consider branding your thumbnail so people know, immediately that it's your video in a pile of other sidebar videos. I tend to use yellow to draw the eye, it's going to make my product stick out amongst its competing thumbnails (as seen below) and makes your eyes really draw to it. But, make sure you put your branding on the left-side because it's closer to the viewers eye and it stays far away from that ugly black time code marker. Yellow is a powerful color, but it is also the most dangerous hue. Use yellow to command your audience’s attention, and let them know you’re confident in your abilities (cited source). Use Cases for Yellow? Taxi Cabs, Road Signs, School Bus. All things that are designed not to miss while driving and paying attention to everything else (and everyone watching youtube is paying attention to everything else, right?) Here is a sidebar on a tequila review where mine ranks near the top of the suggested, and the yellow sticker brings the eye closer (the photo has to then tell the story) In these areas, you can often consult marketing tips and how marketing agencies stand out in advertising and define themselves. Store sales, promotional flyers and other marketing material are great options for viewing to see how you can adopt the same skills (even a grocery store sale flyer). Eye Contact in Thumbnails Lastly, if you're going to be using your face (or someones face) in a thumbnail, make sure the eyes are very visible and boring a welcoming glare into the soul of the viewer. Humans have a big attachment to human eye contact, it's one of our primary ways to interact. Interact with your audience in your thumbnail to invoke the mood. Conclusion Remember, youtube is a visual platform and everyone is using their eyes to navigate the system. They're going to encounter tons of thumbnail content and you're going to need to stand out amongst those that aren't in the know about how important thumbnails really are! Where I typically tell people to not always replicate what big youtube creators are doing in terms of SEO and animated intros and such (because they often do it wrong but have a large enough audience not to care). However, most great youtube stars put a good deal of work into their thumbnail artwork (or pay someone to do it). I spend 30% of my entire editing time on the thumbnail alone. Sometimes I spend almost the same amount of time on a thumbnail as I do on a video edit--it's that critical. I'll even do secondary shots just to get the right photo and I'll use filters to blow out the colors (like vibrancies or high color saturations) to make them pop. I will leave you with this, here is a list of my thumbnails that I've done over the last couple of weeks, just to give you an idea. I still need to work on making sure all of mine fit the definition of a good thumbnail, but you can always change them later and see how it impacts performance! I also zoomed them out to a smaller size to show what it would look like on smaller devices (so you can consider it when creating your own) Even more on thumbnails:
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